Can you teach me more about lug bolts & related tire tools?

Can you teach me more about lug bolts & related tire tools on this vehicle whose tires I rotated today and which I plan on rotating every 4K miles (6K
km).
First question is what is the practical difference between these three 21mm (13/16ths) "sockets" for the lug bolts on the car I was working on today?
http://wetakepic.com/images/2018/02/17/socket_ends.jpg
1. The standard lug wrench (green) has 6 points, each at a sharp angle. 2. The impact socket (black) has 6 points, each at a semicircular angle. 3. The standard socket (chrome) has 12 points, each at a sharp angle.
Second question, are these "cut marks" on a lug nut normal?
http://wetakepic.com/images/2018/02/17/dented_nuts.jpg
I always use deep sockets, which fit over the whole nut, so I know I didn't make these marks - but what did make the marks? Are they factory original? If so, why?
Third question is related to this combination picture:
http://wetakepic.com/images/2018/02/17/torquewrench.jpg
Where this question is a combination question of: a. Why is the green 21mm "lug wrench" so very short compared to all others? b. What's the practical difference, if any, with respect to torquing lug bolts to 85 foot pounds (115 N-m), between the two types of torque wrenches shown? c. Does anyone even use that bottom-most "auger style" ratchet bar for fast removal anymore? (I don't have power bolt-removal tools so that's why I use it.) And, the most important question, for torquing lug nuts, is d. Does the torque change depending on the length of the socket extension bar?
Fourth question is more of an observation than a question, where I combed the tires for rocks and nails, as I always do when I rotate the tires every 4K miles, when I saw this tiny little steel dot embedded in the rubber in each of the front tires.
http://wetakepic.com/images/2018/02/17/splinter1.jpg
That tiny dot turned out to be this funny-shaped steel sliver, pointy side was pointing into the tire in both front tires.
http://wetakepic.com/images/2018/02/17/splinter2.jpg
The question is whether these embedded rocks and splinters, of which I always find between 50 and 100 in each tire (mostly tiny pebbles and bits of glass stuck in the tiny sipes of the tire tread) would eventually fall out as the rubber wears (negating the need to periodically pick them out at each tire rotation)?
http://wetakepic.com/images/2018/02/17/splinter3.jpg
In summary, I ask these basic questions simply to learn more about how to better rotate tires every 4K miles (6.5K km).
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On Sat, 17 Feb 2018 16:48:03 -0800, ultred ragnusen

The impact socket is superior for that application - whether using an impact driver or not. A 12 point socket is better in situations where fine motion is required.

Yes, they are there from the factory.

To make it fit in the jack bag

The Micrometer adjusting "click" is easier to use.

A "speed handle" is very handy for spinning nuts on and off after breaking them loose and before torquing. I still use mine a lot. - not just for wheel nuts,

No.

Looks like a small staple.

You are best to rotate only front to back on MOST vehicles -and MUST do so with "directional" tires.
In over 40 years Ihave NEVER done side to side rotations. (and I'm a mechanic)
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On 2/17/2018 8:43 PM, Clare Snyder wrote:

I knowof people that have done side to side on car with different size front and back, but it seems about useless.
I also rotate with oil changes at 7500. IMO, 4000 is a bit too soon but if you have the time and engergy . . .
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On 18/02/2018 01:43, Clare Snyder wrote:

Why? Not all nuts have this mark, and in the UK nuts with this mark are generally used for hoses that contain inflammable gases.
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wrote:

I also wonder why the cuts are there, all at the same depth on the nut.
A friend I just spoke to says his car has them too, so, they're pretty common.
If they're made at the factory, why?
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On 18/02/2018 17:11, ultred ragnusen wrote:

possibly because they locate in the tool that puts on all the wheel nuts at the same time.
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On 18/02/2018 17:49, MrCheerful wrote:

OK - like a circlip type clip to retain the nut in the tool?
That would make sense.
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On Sunday, February 18, 2018 at 2:37:31 AM UTC-10, Fredxx wrote:

My guess is that the lug nutz are marked that way to indicate the grade of the fastener in this critical application.
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wrote:

This is good to know that the impact socket is superior, probably for two reasons, right? 1. It has those radius corners (someone said it reduces stress on both the nuts and the socket itself). 2. It is stronger overall (presumably)
Since there is always a drawback, I think the drawback might be: 3. They're "fatter" it seems, than my normal sockets 4. They don't seem to come in 12-point sizes (at least mine aren't)
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On 18/02/2018 17:00, ultred ragnusen wrote:

I use single hex impact sockets for 99.9 percent of jobs, there are practically speaking no occasions when they are too fat to get somewhere. (better makes are thinner sided than cheap ones)
Unless you have 12 sided nuts/bolts, then you do not need 12 sided sockets (there are some odd cars/equipment which use 12 sided hardware)
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In alt.home.repair, on Sun, 18 Feb 2018 17:42:55 +0000, MrCheerful

I think the only time I ever saw that was on the fuel pump bolts on a '67 Pontiac. I wondered why there of all places.
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On 18-Feb-18 5:42 PM, MrCheerful wrote:

Garrett turbocharger compressor nuts are bi-hex (and cack handed). I had to special order a 8mm bi-hex 1/4 drive socket as it's not a stock item. You won't find bi-hex 1/4 drive sockets even in "pro" socket sets.
All nuts/bolts used by a Derby based jet engine maker are bi-hex flange nuts/bolts. They are much lighter (and unbelievably expensive when made from aero grade nickel alloy) as the bi-hex size is at least a size smaller - there are 12 points to drive it so it's stronger.
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On Sun, 18 Feb 2018 09:00:02 -0800, ultred ragnusen

That's because 12 point sockets are not the best to use on an impact - as discussed previously.
And yes, they ARE fatter - because they REALLY need to be.
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On 19/02/2018 4:00 AM, ultred ragnusen wrote:

Cracks are more likely to start at a *corner*. That's why crankpins on a crankshaft have a radius at the fillet. The radius also keeps the impact forces back away from the very tip of the hex point.

It is thicker and made of a stronger material.

They are stronger because they need to be in order to resist the *impact* forces.

A hex socket is much less likely to round off a nut.
--

Xeno

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I never rotate any tyres What's the point? When one wears out I replace it.
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Wot - no Range Rovers? Jaguars? Nissans?
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On 2/18/18 7:00 PM, Dave Plowman (News) wrote:

Shucks. I forgot. I actually know someone who has a Range Rover. There was a Jag convertible around for awhile but I haven't seen it for years. Nissans are Japanese, Mexican, or American made at least for the North American market.
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Most Jaguars built ain't convertibles.

According to Nissan UK, the US is their second largest export market after the EU.
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Dave Plowman snipped-for-privacy@davenoise.co.uk London SW
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On 19-Feb-18 1:00 AM, Dave Plowman (News) wrote:

None of which are British.
Range Rover and Jaguar are now JLR and owned by Indian steel firm TATA.
Nissan never were British, Japanese forever. Nissan built their reputation on British and German engineering using an American production system that the Americans refused to use. The OHV "A" series engine that powered the Cherry and Sunny though the 60's and 70's was derived from a licensed copy of the BMC "A" series engine (original Mini). The SOHC "L" (also bottom end of "KA" and "Z") series engines that powered 510/710/810/910/Violet/Bluebirds/Zeds was a licensed copy of a Mercedes 6 cylinder design (had 2 cylinders lopped off for 4 pot versions). Both had been improved to the extent that the fee was no longer payable.
Yes new Q30's are being made in Sunderland, UK.
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Nor is the Mini - BMW owned.
But I doubt the OP is referring to ownership, given how many US brands ain't wholly owned by the US. I'd guess he is referring to where they are assembled. But even then various parts can come from factories anywhere.

Actually first saw the light of day in 1947 in the Austin A30. Must have been one of the longest production runs of any basic engine.

Nissan UK says the US is its second largest export market for UK assembled models. After the EU.
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