How much punishment can an engine take?

I've always appreciated a nice quiet and smooth engine and occasionally border on paranoia at the slightest tick, rattle or slightest sign of uneven running. However I was reading about a track day recently which
sounded good but it is in conflict with me being too concerned about the effects.
So the question is how much can an engine take before it start to get a bit rough whether driving hard on country roads or on a track. Are modern cars good enough to not show signs of hard driving (within the redline) or is it inevitable that if you go down the fast driving route the engine will not be as smooth as one that has been driven carefully.
I'd be very interested to hear opinions.
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I'd be more worried about brake and tire wear than engine wear, assuming the engine has been taken care of. I'd probably change the oil and filter before and after the track day.
Dan D '04 A4 1.8Tq MT-6 Central NJ USA
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